Footnotes


Notes to Chapter 1.


1 Minorsky, trans., Tadhkirat al-Mulk a Manual of Safavid Administration, Translated and Explained (Cambridge, England: Luzac and Co., 1943), p. 168.

2 Lawrence Lockhart, The Fall of the Safavi Dynasty and the Afghan Occupation of Persia (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1950), pp. 1-34.

3 Lockhart, The Fall of the Safavi Dynasty and the Afghan Occupation of Persia, pp. 89-297.

4 Lawrence Lockhart, Nadir Shah. A Critical Study Based Mainly on Contemporary Sources (London: Luzac and Co., 1938), p. 1 ff.

5 Gavin Hambly, "Aqa Mohammed Khan and the Establishment of the Qajar Dynasty," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, I, Part 1 (April, 1963).

6 Ganda Singh, Ahmad Shah Durrani. Father of Modern Afghanistan (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1959), pp. 24 ff.

7 Ann K. S. Lambton, "Persian Society Under the Qajars," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, XLVIII (1961), 125-28; Rouhollah K. Ramazani, The Foreign Policy of Iran; A Developing Nation in World Affairs (Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1966), p.62.

8 lran will be used to refer to this geographical area. Persia and Afghanistan will refer only to the Political units.

9 Gavin Hambly, "An Introduction to the Economic Organization of Early Qajar Iran," Iran, II (1964), 79.

10 Aurthur Conolly, Journey to the North of India Overland from England, Through Russia, Persia, and Affghaunistan, II (London: Richard Bently, 1838), pp. 1-5; Vartan Gregorian, The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan (Stanford, California: Stanford Uniiversity, 1969), pp. 53-55, 424n; Hambly, "Economic Organization of Early Qajar Iran," 70, 79.

11 Hambly, "Economic Organization," 70-71; Gregorian, The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan, pp. 22, 52-58.

12 Mountstuart Elphinstone, Account of the Kingdom of Caubul and its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India London (Longman etc., 1815), p 231; Hambly, "Economic Organization," 70.

13 Elphinstone, Account of the Kingdom of Caubul pp. 210-17; Ann K. S. Lambton, Persia, "The Breakdown of a Society," The Central Islamic Lands, P. M. Holt et. al. eds., Vol. I of The Cambridge History of Islam (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1970), p. 434.


Notes to Chapter 2.


1 Eliphinstone, Caubul, pp. 596-97; Robert G. Watson, A History of Persia from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Year 1858 (London: Smith and Elder, 1866), pp. 156-57.

2 David M. Lang, The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy 1658-1837 (New York: Columbia University, 1957), pp. 205-06.

3 John F. Baddeley, The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus (New York: Russell and Russell, 1908), pp. 57-91.

4 G. J. Alder, "Britain and the Defence of India -- The Origins of the Problem 1798- 1815," Journal of Asian History VI, 1 (1972), 15-22.

5 Sir Percy Sykes, A History of Persia, II (London: Macmillan, 1915), pp. 395-409.

6 C. U. Aitchison, ed., A Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sunnuds Relating to India and Neighboring Countries, VII (Calcutta: Government Printing, 1865), pp. 121-129.

7 Joseph P. Ferrier, History of the Afghans (London: J. Murray, 1858), pp. 151-156; Robert Watson, A History of Persia, pp. 193-197.

8 Baddeley, The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, pp. 152-181.

9 John B. Kelly, Britain and the Persian Gulf 1795-1880 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968), p.261; Melvin E. Yapp, "The Control of the Persia Mission 1822-1836," University of Birmingham Historical Journal, VII, 2 (1960), 170-71.

10 Watson, History of Persia, pp. 243-245; Yapp, "The Control of the Persia Mission," 171.





Notes to Chapter 3.


1 The following table of the Durrani tribe is based on Ferrier, History of the Afghans, pp. 9-10.
branch clans families
Alikuzai 3 clans 20,000
Alizai 3 clans 10,000
Barakzai Mohammedzai
& 5 others
40,000
Isakzai 4 clans 10,000
Nurzai 3 clans 30,000
Populzai Sadozai
& 5 others
20,000

2 The few Indian provinces Zaman did control produced the largest share of his revenue. Hari Ram Gupta, "Afghanistan at Shah Zaman's Accession 1793," Indian Historical Records Commission Proceedings, XVIll (1942), 130.

3 The summary of these Afghan wars up to 1809 is based chiefly on accounts in Elphinstone, Caubul, II, pp. 308-52; and Ferrier, History of the Afghans, pp. 108-86.

4 Ferrier, History, pp. 151-156.

5 Ferrier, pp. 151-156; Watson, History, pp. 193-197.

6 Literally. John W. Kaye, History of the War in Afghanistan, I (London: W. H. Allen and Co., 1878), pp. 111-112.

7 Ferrier, pp. 173-198.


Notes to Chapter 4.


1 Robert G. Wesson, The Imperial Order (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California, 1967), pp. 38-54.

2 Henry H. Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt. A Study of Mohammed Ali (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1931), pp. 68-93; Daniel Thomson, Europe Since Napoleon (2nd ed.; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962), pp. 115-120.

3 Robert J. Kerner, "Russia's New Policy in the Near East After the Peace of Adrianople ," Cambridge Historical Journal (1937), 280-86; Philip E. Mosely, Russian Diplomacy and the Opening of the Eastern Question (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1954), pp. 8-9.

4 Baddeley, Caucasus, pp. 230-250.

5 Gavin Hambly, ed., Central Asia (New York: Delacorte Press, 1969), pp. 140-148; Geoffry Wheeler, The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia (New York: Praeger, 1964), pp. 197-198.

6 Majumdar and K. K. Datta, "Administrative System," British Paramountcy and Indian Renaissance, Vol. IX of The History and Culture of the Indian People (Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1963), pp .313-319.

7 Wesson, The Imperial Order, pp. 10-11.

8 Alder, "Britain and the Defence of India," 15-22.

9 Alder, pp. 28-35; John H. Gleason, The Genesis of Russophobia in Great Britain (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1950), pp. 40-41.

10 R. C. Majumdar, "The Rise and Fall of the Sikh Kingdom," British Paramountcy and Indian Renaissance, p. 247; Kushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, I (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1966), pp. 228-229.

11 Ferrier, pp. 182-183; Kushwant Singh, A History of the Sikhs, I, pp. 251-254.

12 A. H. Imlah, Economic Elements of the Pax Brittanica (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1958), pp. 40, 123-145, 186-191.


Notes to Chapter 5.


1 Watson, pp. 257-260.

2 Watson, pp. 262-265.

3 Great Britain, Foreign Office, Correspondence Relating to Persia and Afghanistan, Shah Shooja to Lord Bentinck, Bentinck to Shooja, Oct. 20, 1832 (London: J. Harrison and Son, 1839), pp. 337-340, 339-340.

4 See p.32.

5 Ferrier, p. 176; Watson, pp. 265-270.

6 Aitchison, A Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sunnuds, VII, pp. 231-233.

7 Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt pp. 107-115; Kelly, Britain and the Persian Gulf, pp. 271-275; Mosely, Russian Diplomacy and the Opening of the Eastern Question, p. 12.


Notes to Chapter 6.


1 James A. Norris, The First Afghan War 1838-1842 (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1967), pp. 35-42.

2 Norris, The First Afghan War pp. 55-56.

3 Norris, pp. 53-55; Robert A. Huttenback, British Relations with Sind 1799-1843; An Anatomy of Imperialism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California, 1962), pp. 18-29.

4 Gregorian, Modern Afghanistan, p. 97; Sir Charles Kingsley Webster, The Foreign Policy of Palmerston: Britain The Liberal Movement and the Eastern Question (New York: Humanities Press, 1969), p. 738.

5 Gleason, The Genesis of Russophobia in Great Britain, pp. 1-18, 284-290; Harold W. Temperly, England and the Near East; The Crimea (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1936), pp. 72-74.


Notes to Chapter 7.


1 Uriel Heyd, "The Later Ottoman Empire in Rumelia and Anatolia," The Central Islamic Lands, P. M. Holt et al., eds., Vol. I of The Cambridge History of Islam, p. 365.

2 Webster, The Foreign Policy of Palmerston, p. 596.

3 Henry C. Rawlinson, England and Russia in the East (London: J. Murray, 1875), p. 49; Yapp, "Control of the Persia Mission," 172-174.

4 Watson, pp. 279-285.

5 Baddeley, pp. 289 ff.

6 Edward Allworth, ed., Central Asia, A Century of Russian Rule (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967), pp. 12-24; Hambly, Central Asia, pp. 199-203.


Notes to Chapter 8.


1 Gregorian, pp.52-58.

2 Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans 550 B.C. - A.D. 1957 (London: Macmillan, 1958), pp. 312-314; Ferrier, p. 204

3 Correspondence Relating to Persia and Afghanistan, Dost Mohammed to Auckland, May 31, 1836; Auckland to Dost Mohammed, August 22, 1836, pp. 395-397

4 Correspondence, Dost Mohammed to Mohammed Shah, pp. 27-28.

5 Caroe, Pathans, pp. 314-315.

6 Norris, pp. 90-113, 118-123.

7 Ferrier, pp. 173-174; Gregorian, pp. 43, 424n.

8 Correspondence, Ellis to Palmerston, December 30, 1835, p. 6; Ferrier, 175-176.

9 Correspondence, McNeill to Macnaghten, January 22, 1837, p. 26; Ferrier, pp. 76-77.

10 Correspondence,Ellis to Palmerston, April 1, 1836, p.11; Ferrier, p. 193.


Notes to Chapter 9.


1 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, October 8, 1836, McNeill to Palmerston, November 3, 1836, pp. 20-21.

2 Correspondence, Ellis to Palmerston, January 8, 1836, January 15, 1836, April 16, June 25, 1836, pp. 6-8, 13-16.

3 Correspondence, Ellis to Palmerston, January 15, 1836, p.8; Kelly, Persian Gulf, pp. 92-93; Webster, Palmerston, pp. 742-743.

4 Kelly, p. 288.

5 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, June 30, 1837, Propositions to the Persian Government by Herat, Haji Mirza Aghasi to Herat, Various correspondence between McNeiand Haji Mirza Aghasi, pp. 41-57.

6 Correspondence, McNeill to Macnaghten, January 23, 1837, McNeill to Palmerston, September 28, 1837, pp. 26, 64.

7 Correspondence, Kohendil Khan to Ausef-ud-Dowleh, p. 63.


Notes to Chapter 10.


1 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, November 27, 1837, p. 78.

2 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, October 30, 1837, pp. 64-65, Ferrier, pp. 224-229.

3 Lockhart, Nadir Shah, pp. 113-115.

4 Ferrier, pp. 223, 229.

5 Ferrier, p. 229.

6 Correspondence, Stoddart to McNeill, December 10, 1837, McNeill to Palmerston, January 26, 1838, McNeill to Palmerston, June 25, 1838, pp. 87, 90, 185; Ferrier, p. 232.

7 Ferrier, p. 219; Kaye, War in Afghanistan, p. 222; Norris, p. 180.

8 Correspondence, Stoddart to McNeill, December, 1837, McNeill to Palmerston, January 26, 1838; McNeill to Palmerston, February 23, 1838, pp. 87, 90, 97; Ferrier, p. 236.

9 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, February 23, 1838, p. 99.

10 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, December 16, 1837, p. 79; Philip E. Mosely, "Russia's Asiatic Policy in 1838," Essavs in the History of Modern Europe, D. C. McKay, ed. (New York: Harper and Bros., 1936), p. 54; Philip E. Mosely, "Russian Policy in Asia 1838-39," Slavonic Review, XIV (April, 1936), 675.

11 Ferrier, p. 220; Kaye, pp. 243-48; Norris, pp. 132-133.

12 Norris, pp. 146-151.

13 Correspondence, Palmerston to McNeill, April 7, 1838, p. 91.

14 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, May 12, 1838, pp. 126-130; Kaye, pp. 254-255.

15 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, May 12, 1838, p. 127; Ferrier, pp. 248-249; Mosely, Russia's Asiatic Policy in 1838," Modern Europe, pp. 53-54.

16 Corresoondence, McNeill to Palmerston, August 1, 1838, p. 185.

17 Kaye, pp. 269-270, 278.

18 Correspondence, McNeill to Palmerston, June 25, 1838, including various correspondence between Mdieill and the Persian Government, pp. 149-184.

19 Kelly, pp. 295-296.

20 Mosely, Russian Diplomacy, p. 134.

21 Ferrier, p. 255

22 Manuscript journal of Pottinger, quoted in Kaye, p. 273.

23 Notes of General Semineau, quoted in Ferrier, pp. 250-254.

24 Kaye, pp. 273-276.

25 Ferrier, p. 254; Kaye, p. 291.


Notes to Chapter 11.


1 Kelly, pp. 295-296.

2 Norris, pp. 192-193.

3 Mosely, Diplomacy, pp. 36-37, 40-43, 102-109.

4 Correspondence, Message to be delivered to the Shah, Stoddart to McNeill, August 12, 1838, p. 189, 201-202.

5 Correspondence, 1838, p. 220. Stoddart to McNeill, 10:26 A.M., September 9,

6 Correspondence, Proclamation of Mohammed Shah, October, 1838, pp. 258-259

7 Ferrier, pp. 258-259, 403-406.

8 Correspondence, Declaration of the Governor-General, October 1, 1838, pp. 299-303.

9 Norris, p. 231; Aurthur Swinson, Northwest Frontier: People and Events 1839-1947 (New York: Praeger, 1967), p. 43.

10 Memorandum of Nesselrode to Tsar Nicholas in Mosely, "Russian Policy in Asia, 675-681.

11 Dodwell, pp. 171-176; Webster, Palmerston, pp. 483-484; Gordon Graig, "The System of Alliances and the Balance of Power," The Zenith of European Power, J. P. T. Bury, ed., Vol. X of The New Cambridge Modern History (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1960), p. 256.

12 Aitchison, Treaties, VII, pp. 168-169; Ferrier, pp. 406-407.

13 Aitchison, pp. 170-172.

14 Norris, pp. 270-294.

15 Rawlinson, England and Russia in the East, pp. 150-151; Ferrier, p. 402.

16 Norris, pp. 314, 318.

17 Ferrier, p. 402.

18 Ferrier, pp. 407-411, 335.

19 Ferrier, pp. 412-417; Norris, p. 344.

20 Ferrier, pp. 471-472.

21 Kelly, pp. 347-349.

22 Dodwell, pp. 189-191.

23 Norris, p. 340; Melvin E. Yapp, "Disturbances in Western Afghanistan," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, XXV, 3 (1963), 33.

24 Norris, pp. 340-360; Melvin E. Yapp, "The Revolutions of 1841-1842 in Afghanistan," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, XXVI, 2 (1964), 338-345.

25 Ferrier, pp. 346-349; Norris, pp. 365-370.

26 Norris, pp. 368-381; Yapp, "Revolutions," 347.


Notes to Chapter 12.


1 Lambton, "Persia, The Breakdown of a Society, The Central Islamic Lands pp. 449-452.

2 Hasan-e-Fasai, History of Persia under Qajar Rule, trans., Heribert Busse (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1972), pp. xx, 250 ff.


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