Chronicle of the City of Schönsee



Dr. Theresa Guggenmoos 1981


Translated by John C. Nelson 1995


Table of Contents

Translators note
Foreword of the mayor
In memory of Franz Xaver Wellnhofer
I. The Picture of the Countryside
II. Schönsee First Historical Beginnings
III. The Manor of Reichenstein-Schönsee and its Lords
IV. Reichenstein-Schönsee, a Manor With Two Overlords
V. The Official Order of Precedence for the city of Schönsee Since the Year 1800
VI. Schönsee in wartime
VII. Village- Market- City Schönsee
VIII. The Development the Place Names

Translators Note

This document is a partial translation I made using MicroTac Software’s German Assistant program. The text was first scanned, then recognized, then processed through the translation program. The resultant translation was incomplete and somewhat imperfect, but was good enough for me to get a sense of the meaning. This document is essentially a summary of the translation as far as it has been done. Corrections and additions are welcome. Untranslated words are shown in brackets [...] and Translator’s notes are in italics.



In 1927 a printed chronicle of the city of Schönsee appeared for the first-time. Its author was Franz Xaver Wellnhofer. Franz Xaver Wellnhofer based his work on the archives of Munich, Amberg, Prague, also Schönsee and Winklarn. This revision was necessary because the old chronicle was out of date. It also did not include the most recent times, the 19th and 20th Centuries. I specially thank the representatives of the city of Schönsee, Mayor Hans Eibauer and the gentlemen of the City Council, that they have made possible the publication of the book.

Schönsee, in the autumn of 1980.

Dr. Teresa Guggenmoos


Foreword of the Mayor

Many thanks are due from the city of Schönsee to Mrs. Teresa Guggenmoos, for this history of the city. The look back to the origins of our city, and the remembrance which for many is still with us of the first. half of the 20th Century and at the concerns and problems of the recent four decades postwar era gives this book a unique and informative perspective. The citizens of Schönsee can be proud of their history.

H. Eibauer. Mayor

In Memory of Franz Xaver Wellnhofer

Franz Xaver Wellnhofer was born in 1882 in Schönsee. His father died early. His mother lived with four sons and a daughter usually in need. Nevertheless the children found a good education. He was then active as a historian in Munich. He was not only the author the of Schönsee chronicle of 1927, but took numerous opportunities and at many places to enhance the importance of his home city. He died in 1937 in Munich.



I. The picture of the countryside

The picture of the countryside around Schönsee is dominated by mountains, hills and forests. It is not as great as the Alps or the sea, but it is harmonious, with soft vibrant heights, of clear lines and dark forests between fields and green meadows, the waters are modest, narrow brooks, little Ponds. Schönsee lies in eastern Bavaria, precisely in the governing district of Oberpfalz and in the Landkreis of Schwandorf, close to the Border of the Czech Republic. The area of Schönsee near the Bavarian-Bohemian border-mountains, was once called the North Forest, later the Bohemian Forest, the forest-mountain, that divides Danube and Bavaria from Bohemia. Today the southern part is generally known as the Bavarian Forest, the northern as the Oberpfälz forest. The area of Schönsee is where both of these parts meet.


II. Schönsee- first historical rudiment

The settling of the Schönsee area occurred comparatively late - about the end of the 11th or beginning of the 12th century.

In the 8th century, the time Charlemagne, this was all forest country. It was not impenetrable, there were hunters but no permanent farming settlements. There were no prehistoric findings in the Schönsee area up to now. There are also no indications of a Slavic settling.

In the 8th and 9th century Bavarian colonists wandered in, in the 10th century an empire-party existed in Nabburgs, about the middle of the 11th century Emperor Henry III (1039-1056) organized the brands of Chams and Nabburgs for the protection of the border to the east.

The leaders of settlement were high-born noble families, the Babenbergers and Leuchtenbergers, the Lords von Altendorfs and Schwarzenburg, the Earls von Sulzbaches, the house von Murach. They built the castles of Altenschneeberg, and the Schwarzenburg, Frauenstein and Reichenstein. These were signs of power and ownership, they served for the domination and protection of their lands. It is extremely improbable that the area of Reichenstein-Schönsee was colonized out of Bohemia. It was forbidden by the Bohemian sovereigns to clear the border forest. Also the other neighboring Bohemian towns of Grenzdörfer, Plöß, and Wenzelsdorf many originated later than Schönsee. Plöß was first named in 1606, Wenzelsdorf was founded in the year of 1780.

The focal point for the area of Schönsee might be regarded as the castle Reichenstein, it likely originated in the late 11th century and the first owners have not been identified. In the 13th century it was in the hand the Lords von Hostau and Muttersdorf, in the 14th century it came to the Counts von Leuchtenberg, in the 15th to the Lords von Waldaus, in the 16th the Knights von Fuchs. Most owners did not inhabit the castle, but they were busy with castle-people. The investment, erected on a steep-falling brow of the Reichenstein massif, was not very prolonged.

Already about the middle of the 14th century the castle Reichenstein, together with the castle-settlement was established as the focus of the manor Riechenstein-Schönsee. In 1431 it fell into the hand of the Hussites, in 1432 was liberated through the Pfalzgraf Johann von Neumarkts. In 1557 it was destroyed except for a few wall-remnants leaving only a stump standing..

On a projection of the ridge that divides Schönsee from Winklarn, stood the castle Frauenstein, maybe built somewhat before Reichenstein. In the 13th Century it was first possessed by the Sigenhofer, then the Bavarian Dukes, and so Fraunstein is called "the burch" in the deed book of the Duke of about 1210. Into the 15th century the Sazenhofer appears as owners, in the 16th also here the Knights von Fuchs. In 1551 the castle Frauenstein was also shattered and deserted. There remains only a few disintegrating walls in the middle of the quiet forest.

III. The manor Reichenstein-Schönsee and its Lords

The peasantry in the land were not regarded as serfs, however they not only owed allegiance to Emperors and Kings, but were also dependent on the respective owner of the manor. They had neither political rights nor social meaning. The Lords named them "our poor," granted them protection in war and peace, but also received from them special performances in the form of services, deliveries of [Naturalzehnten] and money, all rated to the respective size of the ownership. Later the service tribute was converted into sums of money, as a tax-book of 1617 shows:

Georg Hopfner Frongeld of 40 heller

Georg Haberl, Scharwerckhsgeld of 40 heller

Hanß Kleber Frohn of 15 heller

[....further list of dues etc....]

The Lordship of the manor Reichenstein-Schönsee exchanged hands several times in the course of the centuries. Many of them were never present here, but represented only through a manorial judge.

The first well-known owners were the Lords von Hostau and Muttersdorf. They appeared in the 13th century as possessors of Bohemian estates. In 1271 appears the son of Ulrich von Waldthurn under the name Ulrich von Hostau.

In contrast to Weidings, Frauenstein, and Winklarns and Tiefenback, Reichenstein-Schönsee is not named in the deed book of the Bavarian Dukes in the second half of the 13th century. Therefore it might have already been in the hands of the Hostauer. Ottokar II. (King of Bohemia 1253-1278) had conquered the area about 1266. Often both the Bohemian and Bavarian nobles had posessions on the other side of the border.

In 1333 and 1334 the manor Reichenstein-Schönsee was purchased by count Ulrich von Leuchtenberg, after it had seen five generations of the house of Muttersdorf-Hostau:

The first sale-document, "I Prottwitz von Muttersdorf and Hostau....." [Discussion of this document follows, not translated.]

Count Ulrich I von Leuchtenberg died soon afterwards. His sons Ulrich II and Johann I were underage at the death of their father. They won later influence because of their connection with Emperor Karl IV (1346-1378) and King Wenzel IV (King of Bohemia 1373-1419).

For Schönsee the time of the Leuchtenburg’s manor was only 80 years but was important for centuries to the evolution and fate of the place. The first important incident took place in 1350. On May 29 of this year both Counts von Leuchtenberg transferred their ownership of Reichenstein-Schönsee to Karl IV and took it back out of his hand as a fief of the crown of Bohemia. A second important incident happened in the year 1354. Karl IV granted the Leuchtenbergs the market-right for Schönsee, whereby the evolution of the place to a city was started (see chapter VII). In 1362 followed the bestowal of the mineral rights of the crown Bohemian estates going to the fief. That counted for all ore, gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, steel or iron. At Reichenstein it was to find gold, even today there is there the gold-brook and the gold-well, and it is told after the Second World War, an American occupation soldier tried his luck there again. At Dietersdorf there is an old silver-mine. With a deed of February 14, 1367, Johann I was also granted the right of coinage by Karl IV.

With agreements of January 28, 1366, both lords divided their Oberpfälz ownership between themselves. Reichenstein-Schönsee fell thereby to Johann I, which pleased emperor's particular favor. Because Johann was very occupied in imperial services and was often on journeys, he transferred the administration of the estates of 1381 to his sons Johann II. and Sigost, which died however both already in the 90th years [this last statement doesn't quite make sense]

About this time the area of Schönsee is named repeatedly in connection with Leuchtenberg money. In 1392 Count Johann I pawned Schönsee with other places for 1000 guilder to his nephew Albrecht and in 1404 lay on Schönsee a Leuchtenberg debt of 394 guilder.

On April 23, 1416 the inheritance of count Johann I, who died in 1407, the manor Reichenstein-Schonsee was sold to Tobias the Waldauer von Waldthurn their Hofmeister. The purchase-document names two castles Reichenstein and Schönsee. The purchase-price amounted to 6000 rheinish guilders, the city-currency of Amberg. So Reichenstein-Schönsee passed to the hands of the family von Waldaus.

The Waldaus had the manor for about 100 years. It was not a happy time. The Hussites devastated the land, and the castle Reichenstein was betrayed by a Waldau service-man to them. New dangers appeared, as about 1490 of the [Löwlerbund] also the Lord von Waldau rebelled against the Bavarian Duke. Numerous castles were demolished. Castle Reichenstein was spared, King Wladislaus of Bohemia had taken it in protection. The Lords von Waldaus were about this time no longer interested in the manor Schönsee and were also in other difficulties.

So they took on sale-negotiations with the Nuremberger citizens Hans Reich, Jobst Schlüsselfelder and Hyronimus Holfelder. The price for the castle Reichenstein and the city Schönsee was stated in a document of the January 17, 1490 "three thousand and nine-hundred reinish guldin good at gold" amounts of 800 guilder was to pay immediately the remaining 3100 could remain first of all a year and two of more years on interest.

Despite these agreements it came to differences before too long, to lawsuits and pledges, to ancient feud, and to the danger of armed argument, finally even to the interfering of the Pfalz Electors, the Bohemian Fiefholders, and the Nurembergers. The disputes lasted until 1514, only then unity was achieved.

A few years later the manor Reichenstein-Schönsee came into the ownership of the Knight Thomas Fuchs von Wallburgs. In 1508 he had already acquired Schneeberg, Tiefenbach, Frauenstein and Winklarns. Now the manors of Reichenstein-Schonsee and Frauenstein-Wiklarn were unified. Winklarn became the Lord's palace.

With the Knights Fuchs von Wallburgs the area again received active and influential Lords. Many of them also showed concern about welfare and labor of the poor people. Thomas Fuchs von Wallburg got high jurisdiction for his estates Reichenstein-Schönsee and Frauenstein from Emperor Maximilian I (1493-1519). He was also authenticated to the Reichstag of Worms of 1521 by Emperor Karl V (1519-1556). This high jurisdiction, the power of life and death, was normally reserved to the ruler.

Three years later an important incident for Schönsee occurred. With document of 15 March of 1530 Hans von Fuchs subjected the manor for all time with his estates to the territorial sovreignty of the Pfalz Electors.

He died in 1554, without male descendants. In a testament of 1553 he had determined both his daughters Anna and Maria Magdalena as well as their husbands, David Fuchs von Wallburg and Jorg von Murach to inherit. The Bohemian fief court opposed first of all against the transfer of the fief to the feminine line and was only in 1580 reached willing agreement under special terms to the investment of the Fuchs’s inheritance.

When David von Fuchs died, his widow Anna remarried with Endres Jörg von Murach, a brother of their brother-in-law Jörg von Murach. So the manor Schönsee passed into the hand of the Earls von Murach. They took Manorial rights long before the investment true, seems but on the opposition of the city of Schönsee pushes to be, the 1572 complaint "against [altherkommen] demanded Tenth" led. Co-proprietors of the reign were also Hans Christof von Fuchs, son of the Anna von Fuchs out of her first marriage. 1589 the estates came through purchase whole into his hand. Likewise as son is Hans Friedriches, that succeeded him 1603, was him his subject a good gentleman. Both maintained for the city of Schönsee the monopoly for the local salt. [Document and following paragraph not translated....]

As few years later the Thirty Years War began. Hans Christoph von Fuchs took his poor people in protection. Because he was a strong follower of Martin Luther and refused to convert he had to leave the country after the decree of the so-called Religions patents of 1628. By order of the Bavarian elector Maximilian, he his estates "[unfehIbar] an other we [annehmlichen] buyers [versilbern] and then on it elsewhere accomodation looks for". For a short reprieve even the bishop of Bambergs had for him advocated took into February of 1629 "into God name his walkout into the hand" and went "[interim] at this cold season" to rain-castle. Previously he had sold his ownership to his cousin Hans Georg Baron von Weichs who became for a short time Lord of Reichenstein-Schönsee and Frauenstein-Winklarn.

The accusation Hans Friedrich von Fuchs have in following period "both Sweden real appointment presuming," was ungrounded. As electoral commissioner Neumarkts was on coveting him the Pfalzgrafen Ludwig Philipp active, "so that the [Unterthanen] knew, where they protection and Helps to look for has" (31). Nevertheless Maximilians in 1636 denied a plea for clemency, and so Hans Friedriches died in exile in 1641.

The family von Weichs could only find part of the purchase price and ended up always during the years of war more in financial difficulties. So the manors of Schönsee and Winklarn after the amnesty of 1648 came back again to the family von Fuchs. The Lord was now Hans Friedrich son of Hans Christoph von Fuchs the Younger. What he found, was a devastated land. A few years later, in 1656, he died. His widow Rosina Sybille, born in Lichtenstein, took over the administration of the ownership until 1663 when the son Johann Friedrich the Younger became Lord. Soon after, in 1665, he died also, with him the line ends. The fief was regarded as now as available and a whole row of applicants tried to take over. There was once more the members of the feminine line-of the family von Fuchs, there was also Elector Maximilian of Bavaria, and the Prince von Lobkowitz.

The relatives of the Lord von Fuchs were told in 1669, that their claim was debatable. So in 1669 Prince Wenzel von Lobkowitz got the fief-estates of Reichenstein-Schönsee and Frauenstein through the Royal Bohemian Fief Court. The fief-letter was issued 1673, the high jurisdiction in 1674.

The Lobkowitzes were also possessors of the elevated county Störnstein with Neustadts at the forest-well as of Waldthurn. Schönsee becomes therefore a component of this county. However was it only 44 years long into the ownership of the Princes Lobkowitzes that there was again a dispute. The Baron von Aufseß, sons of Eva Fuchs von WalIburg, led a process about the disposition of the estates and were supported in this by the Amberg government. They took meanwhile Winklarns in ownership, that was not a Bohemian fief. Already in 1690 named Christoph William von Aufseß also gentleman of Schönsee, Frauenstein and Reichenstein, and his brother Johann Friedriches appear into the [Landtagsmatrikeln]of Amberg in 1707 under the equal designation. However the fief-estates to this time were still in the hand of the Princes Lobkowitzes and came first 1713 actually at the Barons von Aufseß. [Miteigentümer] were several [Vewandte], especially the Earls Metsch and later the Earls Khevenhüller and Lanthieri as soon as the Princes Portia. [This section is somewhat confusing as is the next paragraph which is not translated.]

The Amberg government left itself time. Five years later they invite Schönsee, to pay the guilty tribute. In 1759/ 60 the domain Reichenstein-Schönsee exchanged again to a new owner. He was Friedrich Karl Baron Karg von Bebenburg, in 1755 he already acquired Winklarns. Also under him it came soon to differences with the population. This time it went about the wood removal out of the manorial forests. With the assistance of the electoral government became therefore 1760 a new "wood submitting regulation" was enacted (see chapter [XII]). In 1762 Friedrich Karl Karg erected east of Schönsee in the proximity of the former Steinhammer a new stately manorhouse, the so-called. Bebenburg, with administration and court-areas, with a hunting lodge, stables and more out buildings.

The foundation of the place Friedrichshane goes back to him. The settlement stood 1764 [unm itt elbar] at the border to Bohemians on free-own [Odgrunden], the to the domain Winklarn heard and the resident of Dietersdorf as [Weidegrunde] had served. Six until eight houses should be only it, the dwellers should receive their wood out of the [Polsterlohe], only whole few livestock holds and itself of spinning, weaving, wood cutting and day wages [ernahren]. 40 years later already 24 families lived there.

In 1767 the people of Schönsee attempted again once to release themselves from ground rent, band work and other loads. The Amberg government threatened to put the Council Members in the work-house in Munich, if they showed themselves more fractious. The mayor came a day, the remaining leaders were set two days in the office house in Schönsee and had to pay the costs.

[A confusing paragraph not translated.]

In 1797 a Baron Adam Anton von Bernclo von Schönreuth stepped into the ownership of the manor Schönsee the next [Anderung] traded them together with the reign Winklarn against other estates. He took into the of Winklarn palace apartment, ended up but soon into financial difficulties and died in 1802. His siblings sold the estate to Wilhelm Earl von Eckart, a Royal Bavarian Councilor, Real Confidential Advisor and General-Lieutenant

The following years brought important incidents, amongst it the end of the Bohemian fief sovreignty (see chapter IV). Of immediate meaning for the dwellers of Schönsee the transfer of 3000 day work forest and [Odland] out of manorial ownership to the city in 1815 (see chapter [XII]). After the deaths Wilhelm von Eckart in 1828 his daughter Eugenie took over, married Du Moulin the ownership. 1838 was the of Schönsee with their handing over at the Lord in [Verzug] ends up and [wurdenaufgefordert], "backward gradient in height of 2743 [fl] 46 [kr] 3 [Pf]" to [nachentrichten]. You showed yourself this time [zahlungswillig]: "The present representatives of the city acknowledge the blame as right and does itself obligatory such in yearly periods to 150 [fl], at January 1, 1840 beginnings, to pull down." (37). Together indebted they itself, that at the 24. April due Georgi-tribute and the at the 29. Septembers due Michael-I-tribute within four weeks to the decade day to pay.

The March revolution in the year of 1848 brought the end the manor and lifted the manorial rights. The handing over of the subjects went now in form of taxation at the public hand. The jurisdiction had fallen to the kingdom of Bavaria on the [reichslehenbaren] high jurisdiction into the manor Schönsee the Princes Lobkowitzes with document of the 23. January of 1807 abstains. [Nurdas] presentation-right for the [Pfarreien] Schönsee and Weidings as soon as the [Benefizium] Stadlern stayed gets and lies until today at the descendants the last Lords. You led since 1857 the name Du Moulin Eckart and inhabits the palace in Winklarns.

IV. Reichenstein-Schönsee- a Land withTwo Overlords

[This entire chapter is poorly translated. It is mainly a discussion of the position of Reichenstein-Schönsee on the border between Bavaria and Bohemia and which of these two entities the manor was subject to.]


V. The official order of precedence the city Schönsee since the years of 1800

1800 The city Schönsee is in the former administrative office and [nunmehrigenandgericht] (äO= older order of precedence) Muraches in the principality Electoral Oberpfalz, later the province Oberpfalz, with the government-city Amberg. The low jurisdiction lies with the city, the high jurisdiction (until 1807) with the Prince Lobkowitz, the hereditary possessors of the domain Reichenstein-Schonsee.

1803 Rearrangement of the Oberpfalz, the district court (äO) Muraches is dissolved and is area into the district court(äO) Neunburg before the forest in which in the Schönsee is the only city beside Neunburg.

1808 The reorganization of the Baron von Montgelas divides the Kingdom of Bavaria into 15 circles, using the French model, which are given names corresponding to-rivers. Schönsee lies in the Naabkreis.

1810 Dissolution of the Naabkreises puts Schönsee in the Regens circle.

1817 The reorganization of Bavaria now in eight more circles makes no difference for Schönsee, it stays in the Regens circle.

1837 In remembrance of the "old historically hallowed brands" becomes at the request of King Ludwig I eight new circles (the later government-precincts) formed one of it is the circle Oberpfalz and Regensburg with the government-seat in Regensburg. In this time the designation of Schönsee as part of the Oberpfalz originates.

1840 The area of the former administrative office Murach with the domains Reichenstein-Schonsee and Frauenstein-Winklarn is detached from the district court (äO) Neunburg before forest and results in the new district court (äO) Oberviechtach.

1848 With annulment of the manorial rights the [Patrimonialgerichtsbarkeit anden] goes over to the Bavarian state.

1862 At the establishment of the royal district offices, which are responsible for the[Venwaltung], becomes the area of the district court (äO) Oberviechtach [unddamit] also the city Schönsee the district office Neunburg before forest assigns. For the jurisdiction the district court (äO) stays at Oberviechtach.

1879 The district court (äO) Oberviechtach receives the designation [Amtsgericht.Übergeordnet] is the district court grazing.

1900 Schönsee belongs to the of the district office Neunburg before forest detached area of the recreated district office Oberviechtach, [dasim] essential the sector the former care office Murach includes.

1938 The designations district and district office are replaced by rural district and [Landratsamt].

1972 The area reform causes the rural district Oberviechtach to become merged into the big-rural district Schwandorf. Schönsee is in the most eastern corner of the new rural district. [More details not translated.]

Gendarmerie, border police, border watch

[This section not translated]

VI. Schönsee in Wartime

The land at the border had to suffer many wars in the course of the centuries. In the vicinity of Schönsee there was never any renowned battle, as about both Bohemian city Taus or at Hiltersried near Rötz, and also there were no big decisions here. But the scourge of the war frequently lay on the city and the surrounding land - with numberless marches through of friend and enemy, with comandeering, requisition and contribution, with burning of valuables and plunder, also with more serious events, robbery and murder by the uncontrollable soldiery.

About 1266 the raids of King Ottokar II of Bohemia occcurred, but for Schönsee nothing more exact has been identified. The castles Hirschstein on the Bohemian and Reichenstein on the Bavarian side of the border were busy with Ottokar’s soldiers and served as bases for martial actions. Then in the vicinity of Weidings over twenty settlement were destroyed.

The frontier suffered especially heavy in the Hussites invasions between 1419 and 1436. It began a few years after Jan Hus was burned at the stake in Constance. Seeking plunder and murder the Czech army piled into the Oberpfalz. In 1418 the church and the cloister in Schwarzhofen rose in flames, 1420 Nabburgs was invaded, 1426 our-area, 1427 the cloister Schönthal burned. 1431 the Hussites hit an imperial army at Taus and appeared later before Schönsee, devastated the city and burned the church low here as in Stadlerns. The great bell of Schönsee, according to tradition, was kidnapped to Bischofteinitz. Already as once before in Ottokar’s time, the castle Reichenstein served in 1431 through betrayal in the hand of the enemies, as a base for predatory losses and as assembly camp for the loot. They were released from long siege in the autumn of 1432 through Pfalzgraf Johann von Neumarkts, the victor of Hiltersried.

The Hussites were the cruelest of many invasions the Oberpfälz land experienced. In the judgment of many the size of the devastation outdid the Thirty-Years War. As often in times of necessity and hunger, the plague came also and many were caught up with it before they had escaped into the forests.

The next war was about the Landshuter succession, at the beginning of the 16th century. Again "stretched one of the Oberpfalz until Tyrol, of Swabians up to the Inn valley the skewers before". Schönsee was spared by this, however the dwellers lived long in fear, because hostile troops stood before Winklarn, the Hague, and Muschenried was harried.

In the course of the 16th century it stayed quiet in the forest-mountain, while everywhere in Franken and Swabia, the peasantry-wars raged. However in the second decade of the 17th century the big war started, that has become known as the Thirty Years War.

In 1620 elector Friedrich I, Lord of Oberpfalz, was exiled from his land. He had not been Bohemian king for long when he was defeated through the force of Maximilian of Bavaria under Tilly in the crucial battle at White Mountain near Prague. Now the rest of his army under Earl Mansfeld attempted to regroup itself into the Oberpfalz. In 1621 they also lay in and about Schönsee.

In the same year Mansfeld was expelled, the Oberpfalz came into the hand of Maximilian of Bavaria. He appeared as an enemy, he had conquered the land and encountered the new subjects with mistrust, especially the Lutherans. All weapons had to be delivered and Bavarian troops were stationed in the more important places.

The war then became more of a European argument, the Swedes came into the land and in 1632 launched a big invasion of Bavaria.

The winter of 1633/ 34 brought much hardship over the Oberpfalz, as the Swedes burn, plunder, and murder. On New Year's Day-day of 1634 they came to Schönsee and established themselves here. About the time of the incipient spring they were expelled through imperial troops, however the city rose in flames. 82 citizen’s houses, 60 [Städel], the Bräuhaus and the Mulzhäuser, the poor-house, the [untere Stadtmühl], the palace and the town hall with many irreplaceable documents fell to the fire. Also in the same year the plague broke out.

Moreover new band always wandered through and marauding Swedish soldiers harried the land. At the end of 1638 and again into January 1639 therefore the citizens of Schönsee determines this advice." . . because of the [straiffenden] soldiers has been ordered watches, that all night should stand watches with four [annembliche] Passenger on them at all times. . . a [Stund umb] the other in and proximity walks around the city and there finds something wrong, gives a sign with the big bell, so that the citizens might judge for themselves then. Also [selbige], that the watching has, [nit] deducts, then they have itself-rather [bey] the [Regierendten Burgermaister angemeldt]". In time-was organized in Schönsee a little security-army, a Salva Guardia, and at April 7, 1639 is loudly in the council minutes," through the Mayor and Council [einhellige] voice determined becomes that the [Salva guard] yet longer [allhie] remained." In 1641 the war flamed anew in its whole severity. Again the Swedes burned the Oberpfalz.. On the 11th of February they came to Schönsee, kidnapped many citizens, drove the livestock away and put the city in flames.

What leftovers had stayed, the Imperials took a year later. In the autumn of 1642 the dues could not be paid, and the whole gravity of the situation was discussed by the citizens in the document of the minutes of December 31. . . it [gehewie] it [woll], [beisamb] to hold and [außzustehen], what God of the Almighty." The Council made a plan for the defense of the inhabitants. on: n [Designation], [waß] the citizens before gun. . . who [nit] has, should create: Erhard Kibingers house 1 light-bard, Jacob Eder of 1 musket, Georg Hopfner 1 barrel, Georgs Mayer 1 halbard" and so away. Altogether 23 barrels (guns), 24 muskets ([Luntengewehre]), 20 halbards, 12 light-bards (over 2 meter long blow - and push weapons) and 24 short barrels existing is, so that well 100 men to arms products.

Few days later, on January 7, 1643 the citizens became divided into four Watches." Each watch consisted of about 20 men, and each of them had to carry a certain weapon. Defiance of these precautions resulted in it the Swedes soon again invaded the city. Again the fire raged. During all this the population had to pay contribution in the whole-wartime. 1643 z. B. should take monthly Schönsee 77 guilder at the office Murach which the value corresponded to of about 15 oxen.

The Swedes came one last time in 1648 into the land. Again the people of Schönsee received the order of the Ambergs government: "There should the subjects with their best matters in the firm and protested places flee". You now also got weapons from the electoral arsenal.

After 30 years of war the Oberpfalz and many other parts of Germany was impoverished and almost empty of people. The factories were demolished, the Lords were indebted and it lasted years, until at last marauding bands disappeared and again security was in the land. The rebuilding went only slowly, by 1698 not many of the houses burnt down in 1634 in Schönsee had been rebuilt.

A few years later in 1701 the War of Spanish Succession broke out between Austria and France, Bavaria stood on the side of France. The Bavarian Elector was ordered to defend the border against Bohemia. In our area the so-called [Landesdefensionslinie] proceeded about of the owl-mountain ago over the resident of Dietersdorf forest-meadows to the gold-well at the Reichenstein and [uber] the old [Wernersche Glashutte] at Schwarzach in direction Schönau far he. Palisades and entrenchments should be erected and to make before everything were the border forests through barriers impassable. For the defense of the place Bavarian troops approached, little units only 95 men for the whole area of the domains Reichenstein-Schönsee, Tiefenbach and Teffelstein, badly equippped and hardly educated. So the Austrians found few against them and in 1703 established themselves in the Oberpfalz. Again the population had to carry the heaviest war-loads, so that the saying emerged "rather Bavarian die as Austrian spoil". There was fear of forced recruiting. This led to opposition and disorder, so in Neunburg and under Pastor Miller in Oberviechtach. The owner of the domain Reichenstein-Schönsee was Ferdinand II Prince Lobkowitz, who stood in the Austrian service. Possibly his ownership suffered less under the Austrians.

In the War of Austrian Succession of 1741-45 the Bavarian Elector attempted to deney the Austrian Emperor’s daughter Maria Theresa the imperial throne. Schönsee saw foreign soldiers in its walls several times, also the feared [Pandurenoberst] Trenck, the burner of Cham, Waldmünchen was spared only by a high ransom, took quarters in Schönsee and in Plöß. An all summer play staged in the Munich forest reminds people of these doings.

Wars also in the 19th century brought foreign soldiers into the land and also into our area, Austrian, French and Russian Cossaks to Napoleons of [Zesten], infantry and horsemen with the whole supply.

Our Twentieth century finally saw occupation at the end of the Second World War of the whole of Germany by the troops of the Allies, Americans, French, Englishmen and Soviet-Russians. Schönsee lay in the sector of the American occupation zone.

An eyewitness tells what happened in Schönsee then:

On April 13, 1945 at took [tagelang] (at night of more more as at day) [einfast] nonstop supply of vehicles of most different way on the Eslarner street, coming out of Thuringia and Saxony, this way over Schönsee, with soldiers baggage, forage, munition, and there an artillery piece between, rare a car with team, many vehicles with Hitler Youth, others with army supplies, not a few also on bicycles or on foot. This retreat was not a cheering sight. Tank-barriers were erected at the approaches to Schönsee. At each of the proper sites of the city there were two sharp opposing opinions to defend or not defend the place.

On April 23 the school-house was turned into a military hospital for 150 patients. The decided entering of the [Lazarettoberstabsarztes] is it [zuverdanken], that Schönsee to the military hospital-city professed and so many disaster distant [Elehalten] became.

Again there is an animate picture of men in field-grey outfits on our streets, that yet offered a sadder sight as the retreat of the supplies. In Frankfurt on the Oder the Franken Volkstrumm had been dissolved " and the men on foot with a few luggage-car [nachihrem] former location Ansbach behind- usually elderly drooped people. About 100 came through the yard and requested bread and something to drink.

On April 25 in the evening fires were observed in the area of Eslarn is began against 9 clock of norths [herlebhaftes] shooting buzzed through the air, on the height between Fading and Gaisthals impacts were observed. A half hour later raved of the Eslarner street ago American infantry through the forest [überden] stone-Bühl down to Dietersdorfs and busy the place Short to 10 [Uhrruckten] six heavy American tanks on Eslarner street, turned off to the right over the fields and took position on the heightabove the Haberl brewery. Other heavy and light artillery piece-grouped on both sides. Again others had swerved to the Dietersdorferstrasse and had put up into direction Schönsee itself, and also of Fading and Gaisthals tanks were and other artillery piece moved forward against Schönsee, so the city was inclosed on three sides. At the south side, at the street to Weidings heavy artillery took up position, also an artillery piece stood at the Woferlkapelle.

Active shooting developed especially at the Karitashaus,which got 15 impacts. Additionally the local Volkssturm, which the sixteen-year old and even sixty-year old stood in, was a so called 200 man Armour-destruction-brigade into the place. The commander had despite decided objection proper sites through his command, to use the weapons, [Zusammensöße] with the Americans called forth. A Captain and a Non-comissioned Officer of the group came [umseben], at Friedrichshängs found into the course of the fighting two women and a boy were killed. Three more were seriously injured, two died in the military hospital.

Shortly before 11 óclock the column driven up on the hill at the north edge of the city came again in movement, tanks and artillery pieces moved into the city, where everywhere white flags of surrender came out. So Schönsee had become occupied by the Americans. The first group departed soon, however more equal to it next came, that evaluated into the place itself. A row of houses, especially on the main street, of the dwellers within shortest time [geraumt] becomes. For days nobody could leave the place, within that city gave it strong [eingeschrankte Ausgehzeiten]. All weapons, including souvenirs, had to be delivered. The mail and railway were out of order.

Already in the last wartime years many refugees out of the bombed cities and refugees out of East Prussia, Pomerania and Silesia came looking for safety, finally came the unending stream of the displaced persons out of the neighboring Bohemian land. Most stayed no time, except to ascertain their number. However many dwellers of neighboring border-congregations, especially of Plöß and Wenzelsdorf, stayed here.

(Thanks to the diary-notes of Mister Joseph Stenger, of Dietersbergs of the family Eibauer-Stenger.)

The fallen and missing the last wars: In the wars of 1866 and 1870/71 there was only one soldier out of Schönsee killed. In the wars of 1914/18 and 1939/45, 397 names of fallen and missing are inscribed on a monument. It is:

1914/18   1939/45
70 in Schönsee 152
24 in Dietersdorfs 73
12 in Gaisthals 36
4 in Laub 11
4 in Schwand 11

There were not only wars, but also natural catastrophes, high waters, drought, lightning and hail, brought again disaster over the land. "As one counted to [Christi] birth [dreizehnhundertunddreieig] years, on the next day to [Sonnwenden], was a such weather [daßjedermann] remarked, it became the j ü [ngste] day comes; that slew many people. It was also vastly a big [Gewasser]"- so [Aventinus] (86). In 1624 the Schönsee Lord Friedrich von Fuchs wrote there were frosts -following continual heat, and he tells another time of the "big damaging Freeze and of the hardship of his poor people.

Bad harvest and a-following famine that it brought also occurred in the year-about 1740 and 1770 and again between 1816 and 1818. Vehement thunderstorm with heavy hail went into the summer of 1865 over the whole area, three years before the first of the big fires of that time.

A few decades later the next thunderstorm-catastrophe occurred on August 1, 1901 with heavy thunderstorm which under [fortwährendem] thunders and lightning which lasted from 3 until 6 clock. Water in the houses stood 1 and 1/ 2 meters high, people could only with hard effort saves saves their houses and livestock with hard effort saves. The damage generated through the high water was valued at 20,000 marks, a very high sum for that time.

As into the summer of 1945 itself to a cloudburst in Schönsee. American occupation-soldiers got the endangered animals out of the mews.

An of the worst thunderstorms [ereignete] itself on July 14,1956. To [einemschweren GewItter] with [wolkenbruchartigen] showers over the heights eastern-of Schönsee [fluteten] the water-masses over [Köckenmuhl-] and cock-pond-away through the Ascha-valley downward, a picture of the havoc leaves. [DieStraße] at the [Köcken-] or [Lochmühl] were of deep ditches stick to [undnicht] more passable, fences and sheds became of the floods [mitgenOm'men], piles of beams and boards, houses were undermined, the embankments demolished, the street-bridge at Muggenthal, the bridge beim Rosenhof sweept away. Gaisthals became afloat, in many a house beside the Ascha the water stood almost a meter-high, and again it made ready big effort, to save the livestock.

In August of 1975 finally hails on a wide stripe destroyed the overall harvest potatoes eastward into the direction of Dietersdorf.

VII.Village - Market - City Schönsee

Schönsee originated as a little village settlement at the foot the Reichenstein castle where the manor seat was.

In the course of time Schönsee was proved to have been favorably situated, because it sits at a crossroads of two highways. The one is road south over Waldmünchen, Treffelstein and Weiding into the direction of Eslarn and to the then much used Pfraumberger pass beyond the Bohemian border. The other came out of Nuremberg and Amberg, led over Schönsee to Muttersdorf and beyond to Pilsen and Prague. This route became not so well used as the way over Furth into the forest and Waidhaus, but was also important.

Additionally the wide valley of the Ascha with the easy-ascending south slope proved suitable for the evolution of a bigger settlement. That the situation of the place in the countryside already the first settler or also the settlement-bearer as favorable, to [einstmaligem] usage as comely appeared. The place name Schönsee in a newer interpretation means not necessarily on a sea in the sense of a big standing water but seat. So Schönsee means "beautiful-seat" [Schönsees = Schönsitz].

A second cause for the favorable evolution of Schönsee was political in nature and stems from the fact that the domain Reichenstein-Schönsee became a Bohemian crown fief in 1350 and therefore attracted the special interest of Karl IV. So the Lords of the domain, the Counts of Leuchtenberg, obtained the market-right privilege with document of August the 7 of 1354.

[document not translated]

[Much poorly translated material not included]

Schönsee, like all Bavarian cities where no royal garrison existed, had a citizen-militia into the 19th century. Precursors of this militias were the land-flags of the 16th and 17th century. In the Thirty Years War one named them to committees, later [Ordinari] land-flags. At least one man out of each house had to belong, but whoever was incapable of service or wanted to be released had to pay a penalty. The practices occurred on Sunday after the parish-church service, 1796 there is in Schönsee also already a chartered [SchützengeselIschaft] (86).

In 1807 the civil militia the of king Maximilian I, became the national-guard modeled after the French pattern, later they were named Landwehr. The men eligible for service from the littler cities formed a fusilier or infantry company. At the top the of Schönsee company in 1810 stood Johann Dietl captain, Georg Hopfner as First Lieutenant, the lieutenants Joseph Reindl and Kaspar Fanino. Also as non-commissioned officer, a Corporal, a Sergeant and an assistant medical officer came. To belong to these "Charter Members", was a special honor and lifted the social prestige.

The citizen-military was not really set up for deployment against a foreign enemy, but served for the protection of the "peaceful and law abiding inhabitants," had "[Ordnullg], rest and security with military [Anstande] to get" and also "the area of all dangerous trash pure to hold." It guided the processions, promoted archer-parties and was used in fires and other catastrophes.

In the determinations of 1814 the outfit out of a bright-blue existed knee-reaches skirt with twelve silver buttons, shoulder straps and wide poor-sprint-hits, reaches blue pants with a white stripe at the outside-seam and ah [ner] black [tschakoartigen] head [bedeckung], that holds under the chin with a black belt on to became and on the left side a [weißblaue Kokarde] with white bow carried. Also a came [umgehängte] leather-bag, a curved sabre and a [Vorderlader]. Funds to the purchase the uniforms didn't exist, only the Officers and Non-commissioned Officers were obliged to do so on their own.

1870 the citizen-military was annulled - it had been renamed the Landwehr. Its tradition took over in part to then the emerging Voluntary fire company, and the first executive the of Schönsee fire company- first of all as citizen-Corps-Commandant describes- was previously captain and militia-company-Füilrer in the local militia-Bataillon Oberviechtach-Schönsee Winklarn, that about 1860 the Royal local militia-colonel-lieutenant knight [Lenk] of [Dittersberg] to [Charlottenthal unterstand] (87).

[Much poorly translated material not included]

The old order was regarded as until into the 19th century. Still successful the [Ratswahl] in solemn manner with [Kirchgang] of the overall citizen-ship, the festive clothes to have appeared, and in attendance the domain or their representative. In 1818 king Max I Joseph enacted a community edict that replaced the hitherto existing order, Schönsee came into the group of III class cities. At the top more stood now only a mayor, however had still added him two [Gemeindekollegien], namely the magistracy with 6 members, the most of the more moneyed population-stratum [entstammten], and the committee of the congregation-representatives. 18 men out of the circles of the bourgeois, Hundred years later, 1919, decree a new congregation-order, that at the site both [Gemeinekollegien] should step a council, as the (First) mayors through the overall election-entitled population in directly election decides. The Second and since 1978 also a third mayor chooses the [Mitgliederdes] council out of their rows.

Our lists of the Mayors of former centuries are only partial, because of a series of fires, especially in 1867, in which almost all old proceedings and writings were destroyed.

[The fires referred to occurred in 1867, 76, 78, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, and 98. The worst one was in 1867. The entire town was burned down during these times, some sections more than once. These fires are described in more detail in chapter VIII.]

1576 Jörg Franck draws as "[jezzich] reigning Mayor" at the Acknowledgment the Pfalz territorial sovereignty through the of Schönsee citizen-ships.

1637 Georg Taucher, Hanß Eder, Sigmund Hörmann and Thomae Meißner are chosen in heavy wartime to become Mayors.

1642 In specially dangerous situation stands Thomae Feder, Adam Meixeler, Sigmund Hörmann and Gregori Scheiber at the top of the city.

1649 Hanß Schwanenkrug is Mayor, but in 1650 becomes put down, because

he is still Lutheran.

1740 Mayor Joseph Hopfner represents energetically the interests of the city Schönsee before the Electoral Government in Amberg.

1753 Ludwig Meußner draw as Mayor.

1762 The Mayors Johann Andre Wild, Baptist Hopfner and Georg Eder lay aside the hand-vow for the Lord Baron Karg von Bebenburg.

1771 Joseph Reindl fights as Mayor for the rights of the city. with him the three mayors Johann Thomas Mittlmayer, Andreas Dietl and Christoph Paur.

1789 Joseph Reindl exists as official Mayor anew on the full acknowledgment the urban privileges.

1793 Mayor Anton Hopfner leads an appeal against Pastor Sutner.

1799 two Mayors is in cover on the [Laandeshoheit] more different Opinion: Kiesl is for Bohemia, Köck for Bavaria.

Under the Mayor into the 17 century itself finds also Thomas Mayer, into the 18 century the miller Johann Paul Haberls.

1801 Dietrich Zindter and Johann Anton Hopfner led as Mayors a vehement dispute with Pastor Sutner.

1829 Mayor Reindl attempted - unfortunately without success - to reach, that Schönsee seat of a Royal Under-Court in form of a peace-court becomes: ." [.wäre] in a border-city in many connections necessary."


[Much poorly translated material not included]



VIII. The Development of the Place

The evolution of space and population

The spatial expansion of Schönsee stayed the same for a long-time. First through a series of [Eingemeindungen] into the 19 and 20 century essential changes enter. The population was always fluctuating through wars, hunger, epidemics and depressions.

Information about the population for the time before the 16th century, which would show the effects the wars of Ottokar in the 13th and the Hussite wars in the 15th century, does not exist. For the year of 1576 it is reported as 92 with wives and children. Large population losses occurred in the 17th century with the Thirty Years War and all its disastrous after effects- "many citizens were led away captive. . that [Handwerkh dergestalten] in [abgang khommen], that through such past-goes Dies several [nit alß zwein maißter]. . . the [andern] masters but all the [Todsverblichen]" tells a craft-book of the tailor. If there was in 1635 still 134 [Brauberechtigte], so it was in 1665 only 96. Many families were extinct or migrated, and a row-of surnames from the 1576 list is missing in a register of 1665- Fuessenberg, Höflpauer, Wallramb, Pauinperg, Kuchenreutter, Weynhardt, Windisch to name only a few (96).

By the middle of the 18th century a clear increase in population had occurred again. In 1756 Schönsee had around 170 properties, of that 9 as yards, the other as houses were described, the number of inhabitants amounted to 843. The [Hoizregulativ] of 1760 names 133 families; an unknown number of inhabitants, [Taglöhnern], service-runners, the not [forst] had entitled, is to also-calculate.

About the year of 1800 it was a few more houses and something over 1000 inhabitants, to them in the following decades about 200 of more came. The establishment of the glassworks in the second half of the 19th century caused a swift increase to 1254 in 1840 on 1394 in 1871. The number increased itself about about 100 inhabitant, as in 1876 a few outskirts were incorporated, namely Bebenburg and Steinhammer, immediate [anschlieDend] at the Bohemian Vorstandt] and until [dahin] to the congregation Dietersdorf belongs to, and Schallerhammers, previously at the tax-congregation Weiding and into the [Gemeindegemarkung] Dietersdorf.

The immigration of glass-grinders stopped first of all. With 1885 inhabitants in 1885 Schönsee had reached its peak. Soon after the slump of the glass works happened and so that the migration. Until 1895 a there was a loss of almost 150 people, the population figure sinks to 1540 ten years later [rählte] one yet round 1400 and by 1910 only 1332 inhabitants.

As previously the goals of the migrating were Nuremberg, Munich and Vienna, the Saxon industrial area and also the USA. It had hardly balanced the through the First World War conditional people-losses. stepped a [neuerlic] ago slump a, causes [durc] a second migration-wave as consequence of depressions and loss of work at the end of the 20s and start of the 30s. With 1206 inhabitants the low point was reached in 1939.

Many of the Schönsee men did not came back from the Second World War. At the end of the war numerous displaced persons moved in, 1946 became [Muggenthal] (out of the dissolved congregation [Pirkhof]) and resident of Lindau Waldhaus (out of the dissolved congregation [Gmeinsried]) to Schönsee [eingemeindet] the population by 1950 had climbed again to1672. 1954 came through the [Eingemeindung] of Lindaus with cushions, previously to the congregation Dietersdorf belongs to, more of 121 inhabitant also. 1956 had the city Schönsee with 1880 dwellers a new record level.

Since the area could not offer sufficient work possibilities, there soon developed a renewed migration in reverse direction. Until 1968 the population had sunk to 1720

In the running of the 70s a row of neighbor-places became then consolidated: 1972 Dietersdorf with Dietersbergs, [Lilienthal], [Johannismühle], weaver-houses, Friedrichshängs and owl-mountain- 509 inhabitant, also 1972 Faded and foliage- 241 inhabitant and 1975 Gaisthal with resident of Gaisthal-hammer, [Rackenthal], rose-yard, [Wilhelmsthal] and [Rosenthal]- 406 inhabitant. So 1 of 1975 for the municipality Schönsee surrendered to the 1 a Gesamt-population of 2794 on a surface of round 4752 ah. Already since 1970 the population evolution is also in Schönsee thereby marked, that the migration bigger is as the [Zuwanderung]. At the migrating it deals itself almost exclusively about young, at the [Zuwandernden] in the plural about elderly people- [Rentner] and [Pensionisten], of that a few has a summery second-residence here only. The one time relatively high birthrate goes back. In the second half of the 19th century the birthrate, thus the figure of the yearly births on 1000 inhabitant, was at over 40, in the first quarters of the 20. Century still at over 30. In the 70er years they sank to under 15 as of.

In combination with the increased life-expectancy a birth deficit could resulted in Schönsee instead of the necessary excess of births over deaths. The percentage increace of old people and the impossibility to balance the losses, can lead ultimately to a decline of population. It [sel] not [versaumt], to remember the existing [Ortsteiles Bügelloh also only for a short time. To the Second World War itself had displaced persons out of the neighboring Bohemian area in the [östl chsten] corner of the [Schonseer Ortsflur], the so-called Bügelloh, in the middle of a forest-area immediate at the border low-placid, had itself into effort-full work housing. Stall and [Stadel] build, [Gärtchen] invest. [Obstbaume] plant and the surrounding land farms. In 1950 59 people lived there. There was no electric light and also no roads, only forest paths led into this loneliness, and into the winter the people were cut off from the remaining world. A few Younger looked for employment in the neighbor-places. However the way to the work was too difficult and the other pulled again away. By 1960 there were eight more dwellers there, later only two elderly people. In 1969 they also went away. The houses decayed, grass and shrubbery grew over it. Bügelloh- is an example of a deserted village in modern times.

On the [dammesmäsige] composition of the Schönsee population shortly before the turn of the century a report from the year 1895 states 78% were "home relatives" descended from the nearer and farther environment, in any event from the Oberpfalz, 16% came out of Bavaria, that is out of the non-Oberpfalz part of Bavaria, a half dozen [1%] were listed as "Empire relatives" [other Germans?], listed as "Austrians" were 5% mainly people out of Bohemia which was part of the Austrian monarchy.

Also today yet is [dle Elnwohnerschaft] of Schönsee extensive [einheit] ly [rusammengesetzt]. The here [seßhaft] becomes displaced people came in the most important thing out of the Bohemian area, very many out of the [unrnittelbar] neighboring border-villages, the- as the dialect lets recognizes- once-time of the northern Oberpfalzes out of had been populated. In newer time there is comparatively insignifacant number of immigrants out of Northern Germany, especially from Berlin.

Already into former time was [geleg entlich] foreigners as manpower in Schönsee present. 1867 object the Royal Precinct-velvet Neunburg previously forest, that "Bohemian mason-skilled workman into the accord reconstructions and main-repairs enforce." The magistracy was instructed, to prohibit this, to stop and to show- by no means a stay-permission to give.

During the construction of the railroad between Oberviechtach and Schönsee in the years 1911 to 1913 Bohemians were employed beside many locals and also other Austrians, Croats, Bosnians, Galicians, and Russians. In the time [wirtsrhaftlicher] high-business outlook end of the 60s and start of the 70s finally there is here manpower out of the Czech, Turkey, Greece, Yugoslavia, mostly employed in [Industrie-] and restaurateur business, Only [wenlge] stayed.

Since the January 1, 1978 the municipality Schönsee has been unified with the congregations of Stadlern and Weidings in the administrative community Schönsee. Seat of the administration is Schönsee. The Community Chairpersons is the First mayor of Schönsee.


The The evolution of the place picture


Schönsee was in its beginnings a rural settlement, planned and started as part of a manor. Where the first court stood and how they were laid out is not recorded.

The place picture of market and city Schönsee is then into the connection at the 1354 successful market-right-bestowal through also scheduled extension originated- a picture, as it itself alike at a series Oberpfälz cities find, and as it, despite repeatedly destructions, into the sector of the old city seed yet today recognizable is- into the plan an once-time [ummauertes] oval, [Leitlinie] the in easy bow [ost-wesiwärts zlehende] Ascha-valley, [paraiiel] also at the ascending North-shore of three street-trains with altogether five [Häuserzeilen]. Hints on this grouping a report of 1698 over the rank of the [Wiederaufbaues] to the destruction into the Thirty Years War gives: ." . in the First [Zeill]. . . in the [fü nmen Zeill] of the city" (99). To the most important and therefore widest became the street between both bottom [Häuseneilen]. Here itself played- and plays itself yet today- market-business and passageway-traffic as of, here was and is the most guest-houses and stores. On the [platzartig] broadened middle stood the town hall, eastern away the "market place," opposite "After the town hall." The conclusion of the street to east form the Bohemian-goal with the of the gatekeeper of busy gatehouse, to west the swan-that goal, the however into the Thirty Years War"through the Sweden of reason on shattered" (1 of 00) and no longer [autgebaut] became. Through an at the [Siidrand] of the city at the Ascha situated goal the way to Weidings led, 1637 lived here into the gatehouse the city-Farmhand. To Eslarns it went through a fourth goal, [eingezeichnet] on an old card (101). Beside it there is a few littler [Durchlässe], the as the goals first of all at night [verschtossen] was.

Hillside-upward followed as second street, clear [schmäler], the already Average [Reih] names. The most supreme, the Upper [Reih] (now parish-alley) was developed only at their North-side with properties. The conclusion hillside-upward [bilciete] the "ditch." Over numerous narrow through-walks between the single houses, the so-called [Zwinger]. came one of underneath to above. Of a street to the other a few narrow [Gäßchen] led. As more districts developed outside the wall itself the Bohemian-suburbia, also "suburbia towards Bohemians" names, beyond the Bohemian gates lies, [sodann] on the left Ascha-shore the Freyung beyond the swan-that gates the "suburbia towards Faded," 1906 more in urban minutes as "swan-that suburbia" appears. In this form the layout of Schönsee existed, until in the second half of the 19 century when a series of disastrous fires swept through the city. The first and altogether the worst of these conflagrations happened in 1867: "A terrible fire storm has involved the city Schönsee in the night of the 29th and 30th of July. 213 structures, including 93 residential-houses, were transformed into a pile of rubble and smoke and ashes through the infuriated element, and now 700 people are homeless or [gebens] the peaceful place of their home [beweinen]"- so the mayor reported to the royal government (l02). [Joseph Hopfner appears to have left Schönsee a few months before this fire in 1867.] Demolishes was beside two property of the bottom [Häuserzeile] the [garlze] upper document line the main street. both document line of the Kirchstraße and all properties of the parish-alley, also eight property into the executive and two at the neighboring Steinhammer, the church also burnt out, the shrine to the Sorrowful Mother of God, the parish-yard and the town hall. Almost four fifth of the city was demolished. A few years later came more conflagrations: 1876 fell the [untere Häuserzeile] the main street between the new town hall and [clem jetzigen] lily-way the fire to the sacrifice, 1878 of the an and 1885 the other part of the [Freyung]. 16 residential-houses with 48 side-buildings rose in flames in 1886, among it four Tafern-economies with stalls and [Remisen], the former [Köckenmühie]; with polished glass, the school-house and the Bohemian-goal. This time had involved the eastern part of the bottom [Häuserzeile]. Again 27 families were homeless. The Bohemian-goal- already damaged in 1867 - was broken off now. Already in the next year, 1887, a conflagration destroyed to [vorgsweise] quarter developed with Städelns at the [Südrand] of the cock-pond. In 1891 the houses in the neighborhood the community breweries burnt down, in 1890 and 1898 the properties at the western and southwestern end of the city-seed (103). In the course of 30 years almost all of the [Bausubstanz] surviving from the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries were demolished.

[The remainder of the Chronicle is not included since it is poorly translated and not especially relevant to my interest in the Hopfner family history.]